Open sourced Cannabis Terms – Compiled terminology with a unique description when possible: Enjoy!
The universal code for Cannabis. Often referred to as 4:20, as in it is time to take a safety meeting break and find the nearest fabreeze.
Some of you never had pagers and it shows.
A natural monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol.
A bicyclic monoterpene.
A medical access point is an authorized location where patients can find and purchase medical marijuana. It can also be called a pick-up location, and while medication should be fairly easy to obtain, the facility must follow state guidelines so authorization, paperwork, and a store process should be expected. In the medical cannabis community, an access point is often synonymous with a dispensary depending on individual state legislation, guidelines, and lingo.
or Alcohol Extraction – Ethanol is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C ₂H ₆O. Its formula can be also written as CH ₃−CH ₂−OH or C ₂H ₅−OH, and is often abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.
There can be different types of alcohols derived from different substances, and the most common is what the average liquor store has in stock, which is either a grain, or a tubar alcohol known as Everclear or Gemclear. Neither of these over the counter alcohols are certified in their purity. Food Grade Ethanol is obtained at a licensed distrubutor which can be common in making food products, cleaning products, or Distillary Grade Moonshine.
“Aroma” is a term used to describe the general smell and/or taste of a certain plant or flower. Because consumers’ individual definition of aromas (such as “earthy,” skunky,” or “citrus“) can differ somewhat, aroma descriptions are meant as a basic guideline.
A backcross is a hybrid plant that has been bred with one of its parents (or a plant that is genetically similar) in order to create offspring that is closer to that of the original parent. For example, a grower could breed a plant with its own father to make sure the baby has its dad’s height. This is often done to maintain rarer strains or strengthen those with desired recessive genes.
BHO stands for Butane Hash Oil and is a potent concentrate of cannabinoids made by dissolving cannabis in its plant form in a solvent (in this case butane). The resulting product has very high THC levels (generally more than flowers or hashish) and is a thick, sticky oil. BHO is also referred to as honey oil, “dabs” or “dabbing,” earwax, or shatter, depending on the manufacturing method.
Cannabis wrapped in a tobacco leaf cigar or cigarillo paper. The cigar may be hollowed out and then re-rolled with cannabis, and the origin of the name was coined due to the popularity of the brand Phillies Blunt Cigars. Blunts often burn longer than joints and are usually found in larger social gatherings.
A large pipe, usually made of glass, that uses water to diffuse and cool the smoke as you breathe it into your lungs.
A handheld pipe, usually made of glass, with a water reservoir at the bottom to cool and diffuse the smoke before it is inhaled.
Bud refers to the actual flower of the female cannabis plant. These are the female ovaries of cannabis that are harvested and used for human consumption purposes as they contain the highest concentrations of active cannabinoids.
Budder or Butter – Budder is a cannabis infused butter created for cooking with cannabis, Butter is a consistency of Cannabis extract that is different than other forms of extraction yields in that the consistency and color is very much butter like.
Buds – Synonymous with Cannabis, Weed, Marijuana, Mary Jane, and the type of flower material that is most preferred with human consumption.
This is the most crucial role in the dispensary, as this is the gatekeeper of the cannabis flower that is packaged for sale at a dispensary. This knowledgeable sales person has seen, and smelled 99% of the flower in any dispensary. A good Farm to Table Nursery should be supplying the budtenders with fresh products and information. The flower usually sells itself when the budtending is done correctly.
- Calyx or calyce (plural “calyces”), from the Latin calyx which itself comes from the Ancient Greek κάλυξ (kálux) meaning “husk” or “pod”, may refer to:
- Calyx (anatomy), collective name for several cup-like structures in animal anatomy
- Calyx (botany), the collective name for sepals of a flower
- Calyce (genus), a genus of beetles
- Calyx of Held, a large synapse in the auditory brainstem structure
- Eubela calyx, species of sea snail
- Renal calyx, a chamber in the kidney that surrounds the apex of the renal pyramids.
Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds unique to cannabis that act upon the human body’s cannabinoid receptors, producing various effects including pain relief and other medically beneficial uses. Marijuana’s most well-known cannabanoid is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) due to the fact that it is the most abundant, and also because it produces the psychoactive effects (or the “high”) that drives the plant’s recreational use. However, there are over 85 known cannabinoids all with varying effects, so THC isn’t the only one.
Cannabis is a plant genus that produces three species of flowering plants: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are used to produce both recreational and medical marijuana. Cannabis ruderalis is rarely farmed due to its natural lower THC content and small stature, but there is some cross-breeding thanks to ruderalis‘s unique ability to auto-flower rather than mature based on light, so there is potential for this variety to grow in popularity. Cannabis is native to Asia, but grows almost anywhere and has long been cultivated both for the production of hemp and to be used as a drug.
CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol, one of the at least 85 cannabinoids found in cannabis and the second only to THC when it comes to average volume. Recently, CBD has gained support for its use as a medical treatment as research has shown it effectively treats pain, inflammation, and anxiety without the psychoactive effects (the “high” or “stoned” feeling) associated with THC. High CBD strains, such as Harlequin, are being bred more actively and appearing more frequently on the market.
This refers to a clipping from a cannabis plant, which can then be rooted and grown through a cloning process of the mother plant, from which the clone was cut.
Co-op is short for cooperative and in the cannabis industry, it refers to a community of patients or consumers in a given area who join together to share and receive cannabis because they do not grow it at home themselves. Co-ops usually have specific membership requirements and the product available is generally exclusive to members. In some states, co-ops exist alongside or in lieu of dispensaries.
CO2 Extraction or CO2 Oil
CO2 oil is a cannabis concentrate, made from the Supercritical CO2 extraction process. Supercritical CO2 is a fluid state of carbon dioxide held at or above the critical point of temperature and pressure, which can be used as a solvent in the cannabis extraction process.
CO2 for Cultivation – C02 is used to increase cannabis plant health, combat pests and non-beneficial insects, as Carbon Dioxide is used by the cannabis plant, but usually fatal to smaller organisms such as mice, gnats, flies, and aphids.
Concentrates are a potent consolidation of cannabinoids that are made by dissolving Cannabis in its plant form into a solvent. The resulting product has very high THC levels (generally more than flowers or hashish), and can produce varying products that range from thick sticky oils (BHO) to maluable goo (budder/wax) to resinous bits (shatter). Referred to by a variety of slang terms, the classification of concentrates is often dependent on the manufacturing method and the consistency of the final product.
A cross (referring to crossbreeding) is the result when two different plant strains are bred together. For example, Blue Dream is a cross between Blueberry and Haze strains.
“The term “cultivar” comes from cultivated variety. It is widely used in crop sciences and is more precise than just talking of a variety that is often also confused with a botanical variety, meaning a described sub-taxon of a species.
So, in forestry it may be that “typically a cultivar is clonally regenerated” – BUT this is not necessarily the case in agriculture. Typically (sic!) a cultivar is just a cultivated variety, mainly commercially available and also registered in those countries that have variety protection legislation. A cultivar still could be a mixture of genotypes, depending whether the crop is outcrossing (for example rye) or inbreeding (for example wheat). How genotypically variable a cultivar is also depends on the breeding scheme. Therefore, cultivars from outcrossing crops may even show a certain phenotypic variability. While a cultivar of a clonally propagated crop (potato, cassava, sugarcane) will be phenotypically identical.
Consequently, there can be many genotypes contained in one cultivar, but not really several cultivars should be released from one single genotype. Even, there is a rule in the UPOV guidelines (International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants – http://www.upov.int/portal/index.html.en) that – if the same genetic material already released as a cultivar in one country is released again in another country, it should not change its name.”
– Brigitte L Maass
A dab is a slang term used to refer to a dose of cannabis concentrates “dabbed” onto a redhot surface and inhaled. The act of “dabbing” refers to partaking in dabs.
A word used to describe sticky, high-quality cannabis with a strong aroma.
Dispensary is a general term used to refer to any location where a patient or consumer can legitimately and safely access cannabis, whether the business is technically an access point, pick-up location. co-op, collective or any other version of a legal cannabis distributor.
Edibles are medicated edible goods that have been infused with cannabis extracts. They are commonly baked goods such as cookies and brownies, but options as varied as flavored coffee drinks, breads, and candies exist as well. Dispensaries also often sell marijuana-infused butters or oils for patients or consumers to make their own edibles. Consuming edibles means the active components from the extracts require longer to take effect as they need to be absorbed through the digestive system.
– Type of seed that is sold by breeders to home growers who would like to know that the seeds that they plant are not of the male variety. There are a few ways in which to accomplish female traits in cannabis seeds, coloidal silver is the most likely method.
Feminized seeds are intended to make things easier for growers by eliminating the need to determine the sex of growing plants and remove males early on to prevent fertilization. Generally, feminized seeds produce a slightly lower quality of plants as naturally produced seeds.
You probably know what flowers are; they’re often the “pretty” part of a plant, and the same is true for cannabis. While cannabis flowers don’t have traditional petals or look like daisies, they are still the reproductive organ of the female plants. Cannabis flowers are the hairy, sticky, crystal-covered bits that are harvested and dried to be used as medication. When they are allowed to be fertilized by male plants, these flowers will produce cannabis seeds. If not, they will continue to produce the resin that contains their active cannabinoids until they are harvested or begin to die.
Flowering time refers to the time it takes for a plant to produce mature flowers. Cannabis flowering times are affected by the length of daily exposure the plant receives to sun (with the exception of the Cannabis ruderalis species, which flower automatically). When flowering times are reported for a strain, they are general estimates based on how the plants do on average in optimal conditions. Actual flowering times will vary and it is up to the grower to decide when to harvest for maximum benefit.
Hash is short for hashish, which is derived from cannabis plants and can be used for consumption or medication. Production involves the removal of the plant’s trichomes by sieving or filtering. Once the cannabinoid-laden powder has been collected, it is typically pressed and ready to be used. Hash ranges in potency, but is generally stronger than straight flowers since everything but the active part of the plant has been removed. A similar concentrated product can also be produced chemically using a solvent; however, this product is commonly referred to as hash oil or “honey oil.”
An heirloom refers to a cannabis strain that was taken from its native homeland and propagated in another geographical location.
Fiber hemp (Cannabissativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in the world are China, Europe, and Canada. The number of new cultivars developed for each of these regions has gradually increased, with each region producing its own typical hemp cultivars for different purposes.
Hybrid refers to a plant that is genetically a cross between one or more separate strains of cannabis. Hybrids can happen unintentionally, but they are usually bred specifically to combine desired traits of the original plants. Most cannabis available today is likely some form of hybrid.
Hydroponics refers to a system of gardening that does not use soil as a planting medium. Plants are grown in water and receive their nutrients from the addition of nutrient rich solutions rather than soil. For growers, hydroponic advantages include more control over nutrient intake and stability. In terms of cannabis production, plants grown hydroponically are sometimes said to have cleaner, more distinct flavors.
Indica is the less scientific name for the Cannabis indica species of cannabis. Generally these plants originated in the Middle East and Asia and include both of the famous kush and Afghan lineages. Compared to their sativa counterparts, the plants are shorter, bushier and have more compact flower structure. This species tends to produce more relaxing physical effects and can have a sedative quality. Elevation plays a large part in the optimal production of these cannabis varietals.
Kief is a collected amount of trichomes that have been separated from the rest of the marijuana flower. Since trichomes are the sticky crystals that contain the vast majority of the plant’s cannabinoids, kief is known to be extremely potent. Kief is sometimes mistakenly referred to as pollen and is the primary ingredient in hashish production.
Kush refers to a line of cannabis plants that hail from the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Kush strains are generally indicas and have a unique aroma that have given them a large fan base. Specific phenotypes in these plants are unique, but their aroma is generally described as un-mistakable.
A landrace refers to a local variety of cannabis that has adapted to the environment of its geographic location. This accounts for genetic variation between landrace strains, which have been crossbred to produce the cannabis variety we see today. Landrace strains are oftentimes named after their native region, like Durban Poison, Afghani Kush, Thai Sticks, and Maui Wowie, and traces of landraces are sometimes detectable in the names of their crossbred descendants.
Marijuana is the general term for female cannabis plants or their dried flowers as used in Mexican dialect. Female cannabis plants are distinct from male cannabis plants in that the females are the variety that produce flowers in bud form which contain a high percentage of cannabinoids that hold both their medicinal and theraputic properties.
Marijuana – Spainish for Mary Jane. Slang term used to reference cannabis before plant classifications were commonly used.
OG is a term that’s now used to describe many strains, though the term originated to describe Southern California’s Ocean Grown Kush, which was quickly shortened to OG Kush. OG Kush grew quickly in fame and reputation. Most OGs are different variations of the original OG Kush genetics or are also ocean grown on the West Coast.
O.G. – Ocean Grown in reference to O.G. Kush. Original Gangster in reference to Mafiaoso types.
“Serjeant at Law: Ye shall Swear, That well and truly ye shall serve the King’s People as one of the Serjeants at the Law, and ye shall truly council them that ye be retained with after your Cunning: And ye shall not defer, tract or delay their Causes willingly, for Covetous of Money, or other Thing that may turn you to Profit: and ye shall give due attendance accordingly: as God you help, and by the Con- tents of this Book.” – Timberlake, E. W. (1925). The Lawyer as an Officer of the Court Virginia Law Review, 11
Phenotype is a term that is heard most often in growing. It refers to the general physical characteristics of the plant such as height, color, branching, leaf configuration down to cell structure—any markers that can be used to identify and judge the healthiness of a plant.
Pistils are part of a female plant’s anatomy. On cannabis, it’s identified as the little hair-like extensions on the flowers that range in color from white to red to darker orange-brown. When plants are going to be fertilized, the pistil acts to collect the male pollen. When plants are left unfertilized, as in the case of marijuana, the pistils change and can be indicators of plant ripeness.
Pot is a slang term for cannabis. Also plants grow in pots, but cannabis requires Awesome Pots for proper drainage and oxygen exchange.
Pre-roll is a commonly used term that refers to a pre-rolled cannabis joint or cone, also known as a joint. Many dispensaries have pre-rolls available for purchase for a quick compulsary purchase with a low price point for introductory pricing for new strains.
Ruderalis is a low-THC cannabis variety that is primarily selected by breeders for its CBD-rich genetics. Unlike Cannabis sativa and indica, which use light cycles to flower, ruderalis is an “autoflowering” variety, meaning it flowers with age. Originating in Russia, ruderalis is a hardy plant that can survive harsh climates.
Sativa is the less scientific name for the cannabis sativa species of cannabis plant. In general, these plants originated outside of the Middle East and Asia and include strains that are from areas such as South America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Thailand. These strains tend to grow taller as plants (usually over 5 feet), are lighter in color and take longer to flower. When consumed, sativas tend to produce more cerebral effects as opposed to physical and sedative ones.
Shatter or ice are terms used to refer to BHO.
– Sometimes mis-pronounced as STRAND, as in a strand of hair, which is wrong, and you should quit that now! Strain is even a debatable term.
A strain is a specific variety of a plant species. Strains are developed to produce distinct desired traits in the plant and are usually named by their breeders (or by creative consumers). Strain names often reflect the plant’s appearance, its desired cannabinoid content, or its place of origin. Although the cannabis industry strives for consistency, strains can easily be mistakenly or purposely misidentified.
THC is an abbreviation for tetra-hydro-cannabinol. It is the most well-known and most abundantly available cannabinoid in cannabis plants when grown and cured properly. THC is also the component in cannabis that is a molecular bond away from CBD. Also known as delta-9-tetracannabinol (THC), it was first isolated in 1964 and is thought to serve as a natural defense for the plant against pests. Research has shown THC to be an effective medical treatment for a range of conditions. There is no lethal dose of the compound in its natural form.
A tincture is a liquid cannabis extract usually made with alcohol or glycerol that is often dosed with a dropper. Tinctures can be flavored and are usually placed under the tongue, where they are absorbed quickly. Effects can be felt within minutes. Tinctures can also be mixed into a drink, but in these cases effects will take longer because the tinctures will be absorbed by the digestive system.
A topical is a type of cannabis product where the active properties of the flowers have been extracted and added to a substrate such as a lotion or a cream that’s applied to the skin. The medicinal properties are absorbed through the skin and can be used to treat muscle aches, long term soreness, or ailments like dry skin.
Trichomes are the resin production glands of the cannabis plant. In Greek the word means “growth of hair,” and while these sticky little protrusions can make plants appear a little hairy, they are not hairs, nor are they “crystals,” which is how they are often described. THC, CBD and other cannabinoids are all produced in these glands.
A vaporizer is a device used to consume cannabis. It heats either flowers or cannabis extracts to a temperature that produces a cannabinoid suspended vapor to inhale. Vaporizing is healthier than low heat combustable smoking since there is no “smoke” to ingest, but this method still produces near instant effects. With new, more compact models on the market, vaporizing is growing in popularity.
Wax is another form of concentrate and describes the consistancy of the dried oil.
Weed is a slang term for cannabis.